Energy‐based devices may serve as a modality to deliver drugs that are otherwise unable to cross the skin barrier. Laser‐assisted drug delivery (LADD) using an ablative fractional laser (AFL) is a well‐described energy‐based method to improve topical dermatological treatments for skin diseases [10,11]. By passive diffusion through fractionally ablated channels, drugs permeate skin layers with minimal systemic absorption, thereby reducing systemic side effects.
Nivolumab was injected (100 μl, 1 mg/ml) with an EPI device (EnerJet2.0; PerfAction Technologies, London, England) at a pressure of 4 bar (50%). Ten minutes after injection 8mm punch biopsies were harvested, stored at −80°C, and cryosectioned correspondingly to LADD samples.